Research Library


Grooving with the Shadow (PDF)

The Indigenous Mind Concentration is based in antediluvian rock carvings, which embody and convey the mindset of the of the earth-based spirituality of our Ancestors. All spiritual indigenous people are schooled in these symbols, which are not actual symbols at all, Instead they are interactive essences who revel their wisdom when the time the person and the image match. The Dalai Lama explains:

“There is a great sort of interrelationship between the appropriateness of the time, the place,  and also ta person intimately related to it. All these factors must be taken into account. When suitable people remain there, the image remains. When there are no more suitable people there, the image also disappears.

I myself have one very little pebble, white quartz. There is one Tara in that pebble, very clear, very clear.”‘

Central to Indigenous Mind is the carving of the giant lizard, snake, or dragon because this image teaches the knowledge of the integration of dualism. To acquire the understanding of why and how this is true is an initatic experience. This means that all aspects of yourself will become engaged in an intensive, transformative learning experience.


Uli: Mirrors and Horned Beings (PDF)

Conversation with Kapi’ioho November 19, 20, 22, 2008

Mohai, sacrifice, to be of higher plane.

  • Horns symbolizes, ‘what sacrifices itself for us.’
  • We use the horn to call that spirit.
  • It is the reminder. The Aumakua remind us to remember the sacrifice.
  • Some chiefs wear the horn (on the head) to show/strengthen the connection to the animal but may forget the sacrifice and say, ‘I’m as great as this God/Animal and‘I’ sacrifice and feed you, like this animal.”
  • Its spirituality in its purest form, created in the center of the universe; created between things. That gigantic atom in the sky is in us also. The space between two heavenly bodies is not as big as the space between the atoms in us. In that space is Uli, darkness, not Po which is the lack of light. In between is the energy and the harmony. The Black Hole, eats; the White Hole puts out.
  • Spiritual perfection; the yin-yang in interaction – power and harmony blending together to create spiritual perfection. Kahuna contact and remain in contact with Uli to help people.
  •  Spirituality is based upon the blending between power and harmony. Power is the uncontrollable force and harmony is actually like a blob! They need each other and must go together.
  • Medicine People go into Uli; become Uli and then come back out. Religious people can’t get close. They are not supposed to. You meet the Aumakua and things that sacrifice self for physical existence and then become that – those Horns or symbols of what they represent. We come back and draw the true figures.
  • When you look in a mirror, when do you see it? Sometimes not. Depends on the person, moment.
  • Dimensions may move around.

Uli, look into Uli the place of perfection; it comes back into us.

Ma uli, In the place of darkness it’s the space between things where enormous spirit energy and harmony comes to us. This is not the spirit of the Ancestors. Energy plus harmony equals, spirituality.

Hewa, The curse we put on ourselves. When we leave work; leave the work there, don’t bring business back to the home or the home concerns to work.

Bring Hawaiian language into the work business, in memos, in greetings, even in simple ways it will help to bring forth our thinking.

We have to be at peace. When we’re around someone who is at peace with the past, future and self and each other, it’s contagious. Barack Obama is at peace with himself.

Hamo… breathe through the spine; to deal with stress. Ie. Some meals are high stress meals!

I don’t go to ULI with a question, maybe I have them in my mind somewhere but I don’t think about them (in this moment). I go to Uli and certain things are revealed. Maybe and issue you had or something Spirits decide you need.
I go with an empty cup and fill it with whatever is given.

It brings a bunch of clarity. That’s what is given.
When you go there, you don’t want to come back but to stay as long as you can and then come back as soon as you can.

Po is where the Ancestors are at.
Uli is where the higher forces are. The Kahuna can go back and forth to Uli where you meet particular teachers. Their teaching becomes clear. Sometimes clarity makes me more confused in a human way which has to make sense (of it).
When we meditate, we start to put it together.

I meditate before I drive with no objective; then I drive. Aumakua appear. Now I am in another dimension and at the end I come up with fantastic thoughts.

I never went in with an intention of soloving one thing but came out with it. I’m looking for answers in there (Uli) but not consciously. When I come out, I’ll know I was with someone but in there, I’m gone. Out of it, in this clarity, I’ll know if it was an Ancestor.

I’ve worked on helping others to allow others to go to a deeper place. Hewa, allow things to control you.

Help them find peace from with in. Bring peace in and Heva has to get out but it’s a fight because its been comfortable in there (in the psyche or heart). The body nearly stops. Work on the senses to get going.

Moku Mana Mana in 2012…looking for the ship.


11 June 2007 Personal Correspondence to Mr. McLeod (PDF)

Mahalo. Thank you very much for buying my sculptured vase. Kathy, the sales

June 11, 2007

Aloha Mr. McLeod,

woman said that you were drawn to the piece. It makes me wonder when a person is
attracted to a piece because as an artist, I also have had an experience in creating it.

Note that your piece is the first of it’s kind. The design is new and has evolved
over the years of making vases, exploring and trying to discover new expressions. The
wood is of ‘Cook Pine’, a species brought to Hawaii over one hundred years ago. It
looks like a tall Christmas tree. Although the wood is not interesting when first cut, after
letting it ‘spelt,’ the dark shades start to appear. This is what gives the piece so much

The wood is then turned and checked for thickness with a caliper; however, I take

the process one step further. I do a second check with a light. When I see light shining through the wood, I know that I’m close to its finished quality. The wood is then dried and soaked in an oil solution of my own making. After drying fully, I coat it with five coats of epoxy.

I had a wonderful adoptive family who cultivated my talent with wood and

When I heard that this piece was going all the way to Scotland, I was deeply


I’ve been doing wood working all of my life and I do it because I enjoy creating

works of art that people appreciate. On my tool box is a sign stating, “To honor the tree
Spirit.’ I believe that if I produce a work of art that people treasure, I have truly honored
the Spirit of the tree. For me, creating in wood is also an experience of shared inspiration
with the essence of the tree itself. To capture the beauty of the living wood in a piece of
sculpture that moves people in a good way is indeed a very rewarding experience.

moved for I am half Scot. I was adopted into a Hawaiian family at three days of birth and
had the gift of carving since age five but it was not until a dozen years ago that I found
my Japanese birth mother and learned that my father who was a U.S. Navy man named
Clifford Willis whose ship stopped in Honolulu where he met my mother. They were
never married. He went off to fight the Japanese in the South pacific and my mother’s
family, first generation Japanese in Hawaii, made her give me up for adoption.

provided a deep education in the culture and ways of old time Hawaii. Because of this
and because of my gratitude to them, I went on to re-create the double hulled Hawaiian
voyaging canoes, the images and all of the other cultural icons. This in turn helped
trigger the Hawaiian renaissance of the 1970s and was written up in National Geographic.
Oddly enough, when I did find my birth mother, I met an Uncle, who was 95 at the time
and had also appeared in National Geographic because of his artistry with wood and

My wife and I tried numerous ways to find Clifford Willis but so were not able to.
In an attempt to connect with my Scot ancestry, I took up fly-fishing and dreamt of a trip
to Scotland. I studied maps of your lakes and noticed a loch ‘Leven’- my English name
is, ‘Levan’ given me by an Aunty as Hawaiian culture dictates. Usually a lot of thought
and meaning goes into a Hawaiian child’s name so I asked her what the name means.

So, the story of your attraction to this piece and all the difficulties you’ve

Much to my shock, she said she did not know – it just came to her! Now I wonder if there
is a connection to Scotland – if something was breaking through?

experienced in getting it home, touched me. In fact this is the first direct contact I’ve
ever had with this side of my heritage. I feel really good to know that a part of my
creation, and life is there in Scotland with you and hope you and your wife get years of
pleasure from this Kanoa or bowl of Light.

If by chance, you should come across any connection or information about the
Willis Clan (from Southwestern Scotland) please let me know. I still hope to find my
family, there.


Keola Levan Sequeira
573 Wainee St.
Lahaina, HI 96761


Success and Suicide. Resistance to Identity Change: Implications for Benefits from Land Claims Settlements (PDF)

 A Yukon Indians Band neober rho had only tlro I{eeks to go to Euccessfully coEplete grade 12 rrent on a drunk and dldnrt orite the flnal exans everybody knel. he could easily pa6s. A neElve unlverslty student strugSled lIlth her teacher8 and took forever to coDplete the last few ecsy asslgnmenls that were due ln order to tecelve her degree: not only once, bul for each of three degrees- Bachelors, l.lasters, and her PhD. Wlthln 6 felr months of complettng en upgradlng cour6e, Geverrl nembers of the saloon Arm area Indlan comm\rnlty cordnltted sulclde. The llANA.!cBlon of Alaska, one of the best-nanaged, eealthlest and most 6oclally-ionaclous riiElni-run conmunltles and ado{nlstratlons In the north, has the hlghesr aulclde rate in the State

Personal Correspondence on Economics and Peace Research (PDF)

Dear Prof. P. Colorado

Your session in the CPREA is on June 5th afternoon. I do
 not know the room arrangement. But it is a part of The Lernered
Society Conference. We shall know the details when we get to
McMaster University. There is a good likelihood that you might have whole 3 hours for your presentation and discussion. CPREA considers your presentation very important. As far as I am aware, you are the first one who present the Native Philosophy-Spirituality. I am very much honored to be the introducer for your session. I know how busy you are and very grateful to you for doing a great favor to CPREA. I have picked up Native Children And The Child Welfare by Patrick Johnston. Perhaps, this is one of texts you use. But allow me to comment on it. The small book is focused on one urgent issue, and it is important to talk about the issue.Therefore, I do not complain the book does not mention other
issues. However, I think of the overall situation and worry that
the problem might not be solved within the perspective the book
Of course, I have a few assumptions to say the above. One
of them is that Native Children will not be “isolated” from the
dominant “culture”, even if they are raised in the Native
communities. The “Native Care” by the Native communities is the
first step. But even if all the children are brought up by their
own family, there will still be problems. And for that matter,
the young generation in general, Native or Non-native, is facing
a very difficult situation. I know my students in the University,
who are from relatively “well to do family”, are having
difficulties in finding “meaningful” things to do. The economy
today is bad. And the Future outlook is worse. It pains me to
think about their frustrations.
To be sure, students today have an “affluent” life. They
have never known what it is like to carry “honey bucket” and get
splashed all over. But the affluence puts more psychological
pressure on them. I had it easy, for I was enormously happy by
just having something to eat. I did not need to spend 50 bucks to
take a girl out. I had live with 150 dollars a month and my wife
came to Philadelphia slum, knowing I barely eat. She never once
complained about it, until we start getting a higher income. It
seems that the higher the material standard of living is the harder to be happy.
Not that I favor living in a camp tent, particularly in dripping
wet one. But I do wonder what in a hell we are pushing for
“Growth of Economy”. Why do we have so intense competitions? For
what good? And in the meantime, the “bottom” one third of the
humanity has to suffer.
higher the material standard of living is the harder to be happy.
Not that I favor living in a camp tent, particularly in dripping
wet one. But I do wonder what in a hell we are pushing for
“Growth of Economy”. Why do we have so intense competitions? For
what good? And in the meantime, the “bottom” one third of the
humanity has to suffer.
[The “Production Economy” is different from the “Money
Economy”. The former is a “Materialistic” economy, however,
the “Fetishism of Material Objects” included.
The later is an “Informational/Symbolic” economy. It
operates on illusions/expectations of speculators. This has
been always in the “economy”. But it became overt and
dominant in the late 20th century.
Alvin Toffler’s The Third Wave etc. talked of the “coming
Information Age”. If I extend this historical trend, I
imagine we will come to what you are doing, namely
exploring entrance to the “Age of Value”, beyond the “Age
of Information”. You are a genius!]
Some idiotic economists talks of “Hi Tech”, but they also
know that Hi Tech provides very little jobs to people. It
happened to have a high profit margin, that’s all. So, what all
those people out of work do? They have to live on Welfare?
It is not just the Natives that have troubles. If one is so
sensitive and good-natured that one cannot exploit other people,
then Alcohol may be the one of “pain killers” that one has to
depend on. If kids turn to violence, I cannot blame them. They
are humiliated, frustrated and angry (as they ought to be). The
system is telling them that it does not need them, does not want
them. You can raise your kids with all loving cares, but the
cruel society is waiting for them and claim them at the end. We
know that. Yet we do not do anything about the system. Why?
It might make a better sense to make the kids to be
insensitive, cruel, selfish, greedy, thick-skinned, bullies, so
that they can be “successful” in the society such.
For it does not make a sense to raise “beautiful humans” only to
have them lived in Reservations on Welfare.
People know that the “economy” as such will collapse sooner
or later. You can read it in Wall Street Journal and Financial
Post. Market experts are saying that. (They say they have to make
more money now because of that, before the market collapse.)
There is a slight chance that some Beautiful People survive till
such a catastrophe clears things up. In the meantime, however,
what those people would be doing? Buddhists would say that one
has to learn to live with humility. But, Alcoholics are already
living in humility. What’s more Buddha want them to do? Wait till
the Hell freezes?
I am a “peace researcher” and wish Peace on the Earth, or
at least avoid Nuclear Holocaust. But I am disgusted with the way
humanity live today. Nuclear War System is just a symbol of the
way we live today. Yesterday, I went to Brocket to observe the Native Education Conference, sponsored by The Four World Development Project. It was fine. I was very much impressed by a lady from Alkali Lake. But I noticed that many of “life-living-skills” that those educators discussed are not taught in schools. Schools are for “academic” stuffs and related to industries, for the “economic growth”. The education wants to make “competitive individuals” to be successful in the rat race. It is amazing we do not have many more problems. Humans are surprisingly loyal and cooperative to the wrong system. Or is it because people think they would lose their jobs by radical change in school system? Someone there was talking of misdeeds of some “Band Councilors”. Apparently, there are people who get more benefits from the present system. If the benefits are paid by other people’s suffering, they may not like it much, but they would say “such is the life”. So the moral is “Don’t drink, but be successful in the system”. Besides, the system does not like bad scenes. If one is cynical, one might say “making drunk scene is a form of protest”, just as the vandalism is. Peace does not come unless Justice is there. The “morality” of our political economy is not an independent issue from the issue of Peace. Are the educators willing to teach that? One thing is, however, that, in the history of suffering, many wise men and women taught of the virtue of patience. Peace Keepers of the Six Nations talked of the need of even “Seven layers of Thick Skins”. The Native kids have to be cared for by love now. Hope is in them. I only worry if they get a good education for the future (not education for “success” in the system). They would have to be good “peace researchers”, if they are to survive.




A Message from Those Who Came Before Us: The Traditional Knowledge Ph.D. Program (PDF)

A Message from Those Who Come Before Us-The Traditional

Knowledge Ph. D, Program
A Reriqt W ANd, $unbo, $dan, and CWno
luly 28 dnd 29, 1999, Lohalna, Maul, Howall
Lumr Eclipe

Shtdents beforc you, gmduotes of the Tmdltloml Knowledge doctoml prcgmm,
1 993-2000, took a few ddys to relled on thelr expedence ln remembe ng
lndlgenous Mind. They reardd these thoughts os a gift fot you,

tlow Ty$o Drogo,,s Darl€, lqcth* ll7c Wuty of Opposldon

Pturrls of futsnbmtre

9 Parodoxtcal ond frustrottng lt we W to direct lt. lf I wont to sqeam, the
scream doesn’t come,

Q I hugh ond begln to cry.

@ TKN (dnd RfW died at the Shddows Residency Lodge durlng the student
“evoluotlon.” At that moment the P?ogram begon to llve. Esther Plnold, the
taditlondl Collfornld Mlwok heoler, acknowledged us students ond sold she
would teoch lr€r songs to us. Thls wds the flrst time sl/€ hod ever shored such
deep cultuml woys wfth o gtoup of multkulfirrol outslden! Was the “death,”
Eminotlon of our progrum, belng rcleosed W the UnlyeBW
odministmtion? lerminatlon dldn’t formally hoppen tor nearly a year ord
we dldn’t stop untll we grdduoted three yeors ldteL We did thts wlth no
progmm ond no funds. We ml*d our own monles and t E Eldds orrd AFlo
kept working with us, We become rcal as lnltlotes in tdbal mlnd.

Ngltt M@arr(,tt or MegE of dE Mosk

9 W” ho”” ,o di” ,o begln. Watk thtough the dorkness wlth new eyes to see
through to the lighl tn my tomer, western, woy of thlnking, going bock ot
lnto the da ness mode me wont to tun awdy ln fear. But the dd*ness hos o
messge for us to leam. lt we refuse to entq tll€ darkEss, tl/€ Shodotv
rctams each tlrne with more feor becouse we hove lost to lt, run oway from
it, before. Now we need to took bocl lnto ll to tind the tight, which ls the
stofting pointl As on indlvlduol this process opplles. That’s how students
onived. fhe dorkness tfrs to be through me. how t om, We teel the
indivlduolistk thinklng. t perceiye the whote (how opposites can lntegrdte,
the individual and whob of self/othen).

to self drrd ofiers in the dd*n6,’,s and thl beyond

Q We five our tives in d sepomte wdy (from Ancestors, our mothedond, etc.)
becouse we don’t want to embmce the dor*ness wherc everything is one. t
see thdt cen@r of pd@ ln n f krdmlng.

tlow Do We tk,ow we An ln alld Dgrtnrss?

9 Ln”, g”, ,y *oy, it teels llke t dm losing everything becouse t can’t see!
We must be prcpatd fot the bucket drcPplng on ow heodl ‘ t can’t Mleve
l’m hovlng so much bad luckl”

@ ndmifirg ny aarkness, i.e,, I remember thinking, ‘t don’t know if I
would llke to work wlth Apeld,’ ls whot creotes the orynlng.

@ Eoch person ls o mask ond ls o port of o gredter mosk belng tormed ,
9 There is tremendous fmr ond worry. frylng to see in the dd*ness we
nouce other sets of eyes looung back! That’s what mokes us wont to run
owoy in feor!

How Dow. k owwhdtwe HowLan,,Edttlcl,,conofDorLrl€st?

@ Don’t know when and how it changed but we dre brought to a new
consciousn*s through choos. tf you’fe not afrod you con cone ctose to

9 We hove to exwrience the opposlte energies ot doy and night, dark dnd
tlghl Westem mtlonat and rctlgious thought stresses the Light and crcates

@ Gays ore bom with the awo dtogons together. slowty heterosexuots hove
to rcallze thot being whole requlres both quolities loined. yet the boundory
doesn’t exlst. lt’s o pomdox. We don’t know how to weove the awo dmgons
together, TKN teaches us, 1.e,, dt tll€ beglnnlng of our Prcgrdm, we chosd

dwoy the whlte students but they kePt tollowing us. The more we ron the
more they chosed!

@ A Mohonk ,tudrnt obseved that we hdve to dcknowledge the exlstence
of the whtte wortd in us os individuols ond communlUes.

9 The Luo, Hawalian mortiol orts, taachet movement in datkness, survival
skills, Luo con be o stdfilng Nnt to help us exPlorc ln ou own traditions.
Q coing into the do*ness we acquire a charge or energy that others con
feel or see. Even tolking about the Prccess reledses energy qnd vltdllzes,*


Q th” bigg.r, .irroke you con moke is trying to fix it! lt will blow uP in
your foce if you fight it, .RElAXl

Q Th” lorn, ,onrot be curtoiled; the Prccess connot be controlted, l/vrrutoity
used to soy, ‘Make yoursell smoll. Even cutt up in a little ball when it comes
neot. Don’t run from it. You might be surprised at whdt you frnd oul”

9 fi you admit your bod feetings, they tift.
Q saying lt out loud helps,,.e.g., t hote him right now!

@ Mr, uokua mid that we often think so block ond whlte but there is groy
in between, d lot of shddes.

@ Knowing the stages of loss, grief; having them detined os you dre going
through them is paradoxkal and ironic.’.it doesn’t change anythlng excePt
that you can name the stoge you’re lnl

@ Even if you con see it, you’re not going to find a woy out of it. Untit you
ore out of it.

Q ft’, funry ho* good you con see ofter! Friends’ Ptoblems seem so

@ fn” s*Aot pon wos thot I was toklng on olt of his emotions. He was
trying to get me to do it so he didn’t have to. He was tylng to make me fel
tlte hurt so he cdn run arcund dnd feel hdpry.

@ con’t us” -tio*l mlnd. Totklng doesn’t work. tn the dorkness, you feel
ond must open to ond use othet senses. The consequences of athmpting to
use the mtlonal mlnd to n anage chdos? The fl’l,t yeot everyone got slck!

Q We hove nottced thdt the dork journey is the power of money, sexuottty,
ond tmrrttornotlon.

@ Sitence ls a key, Sllence ls wherc we meet, not tonguage. The silence is the
Mtnd of lndlwnous People. lt unlus dlve6e cuttures.
MB o,i Cfilr,6 of Wolnq lh,ougl, lhc Urrtagud

@ fm mot” ,omtottobte ln the dartness.

@ Less tikely to be controlled by fedt, anger, elrl-.

@ We get an mergaic chorge to us; when we gct together, Ignltlon!

@ Peopte can see this energy ond ore drawn towords it.

Q Woking through the ddrkness honors our oncestors becouse thot’s where
tlrey ore, ln the obsutity ot the Fst our htstory.
Q n go back to the Wst, to remember, Mr. Makua toys, oWe rccelve the
$d,test glft of the oncestots, which is the preent. That’s why they coll it a

@ w” n*n rt h rhe paln; we brlng llfe fowdrd.

@ ft’, o prrodor. ln chaos, we lough ond cry dt one momen- Betorc we
dldn’t allow contradictions and amblgulties to coexist Now we can, ond lt’s
why we an cone bock! (frcm the underworld)
9 I coutdn’t see the me.,nlng or the creative prccess becouse lt was ln
dd*nessl This ls oduolly d protectlon,

9 ft was meant to be thot way or we wouldn’t hove the dorkness to light
message of the TKN procus.

9 A Spirit roming to live in s body must exryrience the density ond dorkness
of material form; it’s the only way to affive.

@ Embodiment of the whole is entering ddtkness; thetefore, wotk through it.
Accept lt,
9 TH, is th” pror”s, to ground the western Mind,

Q’This trip through the dorkness has been the curriculum; is the curriculum.
When we live it the cu lculum becomes usl Now we can pdss it on,


How do we know this is on occutote rcpresentqtion of a crestive process? There
are trdditlonal stoties that pertoin, such os, the Raven Breaks Ught Olingit). ln
one ve6ion, told by Chief Danowak (circo 1982), the people livlng in dorkness
refuse to shorc with the Greot Creotor Roven who punishes them by breaking
light on them. All the belngs dre ftightened qnd run to hide. Those who jump
into the water become sea creotures-wholes, etc. Those who flee into the woods
take on vadous onimol forms. They all become separute beings who see theb

lgnltion of the lndlgcnous Mlnd

Thls is the mystery of the rcrnembrance Process-thot llfe renews, lt is a messdge
of freedom, power, ond Wce.

Whole Mlnd


Ideas That Matter: The Fetzer Dialogues on Cultural Diversity (PDF)



It is difficult to live in these times and not feel a sense of impending transformation. In light of
thg vast upheavals ofthe century, this statement may segm a bit trite ofthe obvious. Nonetheless
a momentous shift seems to be in the olfing, one quite unlike anlthing that has happened before.
in it. Join us
It has to do with the way we look at things, the way we see the world, and our plac€
for the next hour as we explore the yr’isdom aod healing powers oftraditional medicins ard
indigenous science. My name is Mark Walstlom, I’ll be you. host. You’re listening to Ideas
That Matter The Fetzer Dialogues. Ginger Floyd:

Moderalor: There is worldwide expanding interest in the area oftraditional and altemative

medicine, More and more people axe seeking first the services of traditional
health care providers. Our panel today is composed of experts ftom fwo
contirents who are working in this important field. They are Mr. Hale Makua,
who is the elde! ofthe Spiritual Wariors, the first seat, the big island Hawaii, a
native Hawaiian Kahuna “the guardia[ ofthe s€c!ets.” Dr. Pamela Apela
Colorado is a member of the United Nations, Dircctor of the Tiaditional
Knowledge Program, Califomia Institute of Integral Studies – San Francisco and
Maui. Dr. Erick Cbodossou is the Director ofthe Afiican-based Association for
the Promotion ofTraditional Medicine – PROMETRA. A modem hained
physician and an iniliated taditional healer, he is from Dakax, Senegal, West
A&ica. Welcome, Today’s topic is traditional medicine and indigenous science.
We would like to begin in the way oftmditional people by asking our Elder, Mr.
Hale Makua to olfer a pByer.


Moderalor: Hale Makua we thank you for that blessing in your native language. We begin

our discussion today by asking the important question. Dr. Colorado what is
indigenous science?

Answer: IDdigenous science is a way ofknowing, it’s away oflife. Indigenous science

means being electri$ing alive in the moment. Indigenous science is carried
through the generations, and it’s a science that is concemed with grounding. In
other words, all of naturc the entire universe is alive and because it’s alive we do
not study it from afar, but we engage in dialogue with it, we communicate with it.
And because we are a part ofthe whole, we can hear what nature is saying to us,
we cal! talk with natue, we car be intimate with natue. And fiom this comes
passion, dre passio[ ofthe indigenous mind, and it’s the frecdom ofthe eagle, it’s
the meaning ofthe word ”
Turtle Island.

“, land of the wind, the home we call


Elder Makua in your native tradition ofHawaii, what is indigenous science?


lndigenous science has to do \ rith beiry intimate with all elements. It has to do
with you being sovereign. A sovereign spirit is free, versus the illusions that we
Iive in. To be intimate with all things, one must undelstand compassion, and feel
compassion, for compassion creates allialtce. Alliance, therefore, will move you
to a level of rcciprccating, giving back to &e bowl oflife, to the water of life,
therefore, appreciating where you’re at, appreciating all things surrounding you,
becaus€ you are the center of all things. Therefore, understarding that all is one.
Therefore, becoming altruistic in yourself, and serve your other selves, your
fellow man. Therefore, completing yourselfwith love.


Dr. Gbodossou, our guest from Senegal, West Afiica. Indigenous science,
traditional medicine in Afiica is what?




Indigenous science in West Africa is the way ofknowledge. Knowledge is
different fiom leaming. Leaming is what we what we leam in school. Leaming
is what we read, what we leam in books. So without the knowledge is the way to
know what is all and what is a continuation ofa particular way and what isn’t that
way into the circle, the circle of life.
h 1990, over one-third of all the visits to medicine in this country were to
altemative healers, 425 million visits. Why are people doing this? And why is
this important now in the 2 I st century Dr. Colorqdo?

People arc tuming to traditional indigenous science in medicine because the
healing that we’re getting ftom medicine is not complete. It doesn’t address the
spirit or the psychologr, or the family, or the life we retum to when we leave the
doctor’s omce. And although we can get a partial cure from westem science, we
may not be able to get a cure at all beasuse the price of westem science and
medical care is beyond the reach ofmost the world’s population.


Elder Makua, you are a Elder and a healer. Patients come to you seeking what?

They come to fmd themselves. By finding themselves, they heal themselves
because they bring themselves together, the positives and the negatives of
themselves. They make choices. Choices that they lever thought they had, and
thes€ choices is all that you have.


Do you b€lieve
medicine is in fact the answer to the problems of the 2lst century Dr. Colorado?

that this altcmative mediaine, indigenous science, traditional

Well I believe it is an answer. There may be olher alswers. But the answer that
indigenous science offers is the answer that can heal the earth and can heal the

family. For example, in Alaska in the Exxon oil spill area, scientists have asked
me to help them in their researchs. What they’ve asked for is something very
interesting. They’ve asked for help in leaming how to do inter-species
commuication. Why? Because if the communication with the species that are
being studied could be facilitated thrcugh dialogue and communication with that
species, the science would be less expensive and more efective. Furthermore,
traditional knowledge, which is whole, offers a way in techlological disasier sites
which brings together many many different disciplines of science studying the
prcblem area. lndiSenous science offers a process for integrating often disparate
researches. So on the level ofenvironment, indigenous science has a great deal to
offer. In addition to that we’re talking about medicine. And finally, in the area
ofconsciousness, indigenous science offers humanity the possibility ofrcgaining
the ability to think and use their whole mind. In using this whole mind, solutions
become imminent. Solutions that, in an exclusively linear way, we may not be
able to conceive of. What do I mean by that? ODe of the things about indigenous
mind is that when we are in the whole, we are not working alone. Through the
love that ]r,ft. Makua was talking about, we have a tremendous ercrgy that is
available working to us and through us, and with that we can do things which are
called extraordinary, such as psychic phenomenan, movilg things with our minds,
healing other people, healing our own lives wilh our minds. Speaking in a way
that words cause things to happen. These abilities are not extraordinary in the
indigenous world, in fact, they are normal. It’s normal for all humanity to be able
to do these things. But the excess ofrationalization and linear thought that’s a
part ofneutoniatr cartisian science has constrained and limited the humar mind,
which camot be limited.


Dr. Gbodossou, in Senegal 85% ofthe population rceived thei. health care fiom
traditional healers, not ftom modem medicine. What is the role oftraditional
medicine in the future ofSenegal?


The role ofhaditional medicine in the future ofSenegal is assured, because we
notiry that in ou. country. On our continent the modem science gets a little
weakness. For example, we need to eat for our life, but we can live 50 days
without eating. We need waler to live, but we can live 12 days without water.
We need oxygen to live, but we can liye seven minutes without oxygen. But we
cannot live a fraction of a second without energy. So in modern science, we
notiry that we need to
a whole. In tradilional medicine, we try to
nodry, promote in Senegal, and we organized a Traditional Association which
contains 450 healers, and we also built a traditional experimental center where we
learn the traditional way to promote this science.


Lasr August, we joined 650 people in the Sea Island of St. Helena, South
Carolina, dancing around trees to the beat ofAftican drums, having a spiritual
ceremony called Coumba Lamba USA. How did we get there? How did we all

end upthere? Who are we
joumey that took us there?

and why were we there? What’s the


Apela Colorado

Well for me thejoumey b€gan as a child when I was four and five-years-old. My
grandfather, who was the only traditional indigenous practitione! in our family,
told me that he wanted me to go to a Univelsity, although no one in my family
lo one. If my grandfarher asked me rhat, in the love that he shared
had ever be€n
with me, I knew I was going ro do it. Theo before my grandfather passed away
when I was a young girl about 12 or 13, he came to visit me in a sDow storm one
day, my grandmother drcve him. He ammened his earlier inshuctio[ to me.
What he told me that day was, remember the pipe, remember the pipe, remember
tlrc pipe. For me those words werc my path, and that path carded me all tbe way
through Universities, through my Ph.D. program, and while I was studying and
getting my doctorate, I began to research the relationships between human beings
all over the world, because I wanted to understand what had happened to my
people, to Native people, American Indian people, and, as well, I wanted to
understand the interplay between my own American Indian people and also my
French ancestors, because there had been a war between my skin that was raging
for a long time. And when I began my research what I found out is that tribal
people, including European tribal people in the very eady days, used to remember
that we were related, altd it was remembered throught migrations and through
gatherings, and one ofthe points lhat we used to gather at was near Mexico City.
When I found this out in my rcsearch, both by talking with elders, ard by
University library type researches, I had this amazing feeling come over me.
What if, I wondered, what ifthe peoples ofthe world that know how to live with
the earth, and know how to keep families together through this love and intimacy.
What ifwe could comc together with each olher. What might happen then?
Could it be that the lost knowledge of our peopies for the last 500 years would be
restored? Could it b€
that some spirit would go out across the land and that a
great healing could occur? I wondered that, and when I got to Coumba Lamba
this last August I saw my drcam ufold b€fore my eyes. It was so beautiful to
hear the sounds ofthe drums, lo hear the different voices, to hear the dances. And
the most part for me was a conversatio[ I had with Mary Jones, a Chocia\,/ elder,
was that she rcmembffed her people, the Choctaw p€ople, used to do ceremodes
with Aftican people who were enslaved in the south several generations ago, and
Mary carried this oral history through three or four generations of her family,
despite inc.edible piessures and cultural disorganization ard disintegation, she
remembered when she head the drum and she shared that story. What she told us
is that her people saw African people and joined in wirh Afiican p€ople
in doing
vadous things to keep our minds whole and intact under enormous stresses. She
said that back then people would walk across buming coals and press their faces
to sharp rocks or stones or glass to keep their minds whole and complete so that




they wouldn’t break. I feel in a sense that Coumba Lamba was remembering that.
We reinact€d what we used to do, and thrcugh that our minds are strong and

There were people there ftom 26 states and six countries at Coumba Lamb4
South Carolina, this past year. Dr. Gbodoussou you led the Senegalese group that
rcally came to Coumba Larnba, because Coumba Lamba is a Senegalese ritual.
Tell us about thatjoumey for you.

Thank you. To understald this joumey for me, you must understand a liule about
myself. At birth in a small village into a caooe, and my family is also a family of
knowledge. Eaxly, since my infancy, I know a lot ofinitiation, and when I went
to medical school, I think that the best walk for human being must be healing to
help suffering. When I went to medical school, I knew that medical school was
very short, aod one year before I frnished my M.D., I wanted to stop my studies.
said don’t be foolish. Ifyou
One ofmy teachers. his name is
stop your studies tomorow, in the fuhrre if Mr. Cbodossou were to speak lobody
would come. And ifyou say Dr. Gbodossou want to speak, a lot ofp€Nons cafl
understand you. So don’t be foolish. I continued to study for my M.D. and also a
lot of knowledge in _,
physician, and I can say that fo! 20 years I have neve. taken a modem drug
because I know why. And when I finished my studies, I think it is time lo
organize traditional healers in Senegal. What I did was to go to each village, one
the healers. The time to go to Amedca for Coumba Lamba USA
by one, to s€lect
is for me like dream come reality, and what I saw at Coumba Lamba ard what is
unique and rcmindful for me is no cultwe, no civilization has the truth. The truth
is like a cake spilled through the world, each culhfe, each civilization gets a little
part, and to bring together all cultures at this site on the Atlantic Ocean is for me a
beginning ofthe way that call help us to know the wey. The way to go to the
tuth, because we meet therc, indigenous people, Amercian people, Aztec, Maya,
a lot of civilizations, ard we move all together in the rhythem, in the danciry, all
so necessary to go in the spiritual way.

psychic, and so on. And so I am a doctor, a


At Coumba Lamba there was music and dancing and teaching and drumming.
There was a yowrg Native Hawaiian student ofthe ancient ways, Mr. Makua, who
knelt before Madame Fatou Seck, a Senegalese Fiestess, and prcsented her with a
lai, and gifts ftom Hawaii, and sang a song in his native language. Tell us, is this
the answer?

It’s part ofthe answer, but it’s sharing himself, sharing all ofHawaii. The Aloha
begins with this compassion and this is what he is sharing Madame Fatou Seck,
his Aloha, his compassion, We are all coming together now, because in Polynesia
the wo.d has gone out that we are on the sixth level, and being on the sixth level,
it has to do with integrating, reconnecting all things. Therefore, being intimate


with all things. Yes, I would say he’s coolecting.

we missed you at that healing ceremony Mr. Makua” but we’1l be sule that you’re
at the next one. You know we talk about indigenous science, and we talk about
modem medicine and they’re oftentimes compared. Now, there apparently is a
difference in this concept from what we’ve described here today, and what we see
everyday in modem medicine. Can you give an example ofthe difference
between modem medicine and indigenous science and traditional medicine? One
ofthe things that we’ve offen talked about is that difference as it relates to how
we react to man, the description ofman. Dr. Gbodossou, I’ve head you talk
about the five levels of malr in a traditional sense. How does that compare to how
we look al man in modem medicine?

, we see in the small parts ofa human being five

Thank you Dr. Floyd, Ginger. We klow Aftican science has its own reality, its
own rationale, and its own truth. So when we consider this modem science, this
taditional scierce. what is the meaning ofhuman beiag. In modem science,
human beings are made with oryan tissue cells. So when we speak about the
meaning of human being in taditional knowledge, African mind, African thought,
we consider a human being as an all, always in contact with traditional things,
extraterrestdal things, and cosmic things. When we want to put the man in the
simplest form of
elements, The first element is the physical element, the seaond is the psychic
element, the third is the moral element, the fourth is the soul, and the fifth is the
spirit. So the physicai element himself contains two elements, the physical
biologicat way known by modern medicine, and an energetical element, which is
not well known by modem medicine. The second element, the psychic element’
is the moral. Human beings arc the crcation which is able to do bad things
without rcason. So we need something to coDtain thess agglessions, which is why
we need religion. It is also our difference between animals. Th€ fou(h element is
traditional healers to be t\ryo places at the same
the soul. The soul is
time. The fifth element spilit cortains the top level of spirit. The first level is the
spidt of our gandparents that is not there in Aftica. The second level is those
who go around the world. The first level is like the universal knowledge, no
scienie is able to prove that in ow world ofman. Itis the center ofknowledge, so
our knowledge is outside of our body and in the top ue notiry 256 spirits well
knoun in Afiican science, we call FA. It is also the reason why my Aiends say
that there is a 1ot ofdifference between healing and curing.

for it’s size more than science. The third element

Moderator: Two ofyoq Mr. Makua and Apela Colorado, are involved in the recreation of
authentic double-hulled Polynesian canoes, and all ofus have had the blessirg
and the privilege and the honor of actually riding in this canoe as it caressed the

sea. What is the role ofcanoes in ancient Hawaiian/Polynesian culture, and why
was this so imponant for us to do?


Hale Makua

First ofall I’d like to stad this way. The canoe is part ofour spiritual essence of
where we come ftom. It is our vehicle, and in the days of old, we would take our
newbom babies and they would grow up in the canoe. By growing up in a canoe,
they would acquire the rhythm ofthe ocean, it would rock them to sleep, and
when they went into & diIIelent ses, they would recognize the different rhythms.
Therefore, acquiring this rhythm in their own sea, they would know when they
have arrived home. Therc were navigatiotr _
The navigation
leam about the stars. Now, it’s important for us to rctum to the canoe for the
simple reason that it is our life, and the canoe has connected us as a vehicle with
our family membeN that are scattered tkoughout Polyaesian, over 2,000 miles.
We have kept this communication with the canoe up until 800 yea$ ago, and it
stopped. There were reunions every four years. Now we are retrieving this one
more time, and we started this in 1995, when there was the meeting ofall ofthe
canoes m

are coming back into folm once more on the big island ofHawaii.
is wbere all navigators that were selected went to

built. These navigation

at the Temple of


. The caqoe itself is maoled by people that serve all seven

different rcles. These seven diferent roles follow the navigation, the

They will follow the

because he is the
senior on the canoe, and no one questions that. So, thercfore, it c.eated discipline,
or self discipline among each crew member. The key to the whole thing is about
tust. It generated the trust, not only with the navigation, but it generated a t ust
iII the intimacy that you were having with the sea, with the sky, with the wind,
wirh the stars, sailing on the breast of mothet, the oldest mother we ever had, the
ocean. And looking up at the sky aDd looking at the backbone of Sky Fatha, and
following the ribs of Sky Father, the stars. One day soon, Maui will lower his
fishhook to connect all of us.


Dr. Gbodossou 8nd I had the opportunity to visit oo Maui the rcstoration project
ofthe double-hulled Polynesian canoes. How is this project litked to traditional
medicine and indigenous science.


Ap€la Colomdo
On Maui, we’re building (By we, I mean a group ofpeople, a multi-cultual gloup
or the medicine man of
ofpeople, and my husbaad is the
canoes.) a 62 foot double-hulled voyaging canoe. This c8roe, elthough in a
westem way! we would lhink ofit as a boal has all of the teachings of
cosmology, of spirituality, of history, mathematics, astronomy and logic i, it. As
this canoe is being built, the ertire community is partioipaiing. It witl be 62 feet 2

inches long when complete and at this moment, in one year’s time, we have more
than 8,000 hours ofvolunteer time into it. Where we’re building the canoe is also
imponant. We’rc building it on one ofthe most ancient spiritual sites oo the
island of Maui, and it’s a site that has an old pond that has now been fi1led in, and
formerly had a 40 foot black lizard rhat would appear in this pond from time to
time. Now what does that mean, and what does that have to do with spirituality?
Metaphorically one could think ofthe pond and the lizard as the womb, the bag of
wate$ and the fetus. But h reality, that lizard rccalls to our minds the genealogy,
like the vertebrate oIr the spine, the generations. For me, I went to a ceremony in
Navajo land in 1985, and in that ceremony I saw this lizard. I was given a story
about how the lizard came to be important in Navajo teachings because there was
a sacred woman who had twin sons, and this Mcred woman,
looked at the d€vastation of the earth, ofcourse we don’t know when that time
was, if it’s now or back then, or in the futue, or all times, but this sacred woman
looked at the eaah and saw the damage, the destruction, that was caused by too
much sun enelgy, maybe too much male energy, and she went on ajoumey west
to the ocean, and her two sons traveled with her, but they had strict rules about
how they had to behave on this spirituatjoumey. Ofcouse, orc boy broke a
taboo and he ate so&ething along the way. By the time they got to the ocean he
was changing and he asked to be put into the water. This boy turned into a lizard
and this woman accompanied by her son, the lizard, traveled in a canoe, they say
to the farthest west island. By the way, because I went thrcugh this ceremony, the
Navajo people said that I could say this much ofthe story. So this woman and the
lizard made it to the fadhest west island, and today when the rains come into the
desert refreshing the parched earth, they say it’s that woman over there, she’s got
that power and she’s serding it back ro us. That life. When I got to Maui, I found
out that the pond that I had come to, this baseball park today, was the home of this
lizard, and I felt as ifl had truly come home. That experience what’s happened to
me is happening to evcryone working on the canoe. The canoe is causing us to
grow. As the canoe is constructed, so arc our lives alld our spirituality coming
together. This canoe is a time machine, ifyou look into its deeper meanings. It
has a rcpresentation ofthe Tropic of Cancer in Capricom, the Equator, and the
leachings of what it means to live within those boundades within the

or the Breath oflife. What happens to us when we cross that

Equator where thi[gs are identical, yet opposite, Hawaiian people and Hawaiian
culture, the indigenous scielce there, teaches us to move in accord with the
heavens as Hale Makua has said. But more tltan that, it teaches us how to move
in accord with each other, and with the hemispheres of our brains like the double-

hulls ofthe canoe, to work in balance.


The time when I first had the privilege ofbowing my head and kneeling al the site
ofthis double-hulled canoe and e[teriog it and being taken to sea to feel the
warmth of the sun upon my skin and to close my eyes and say my prayers, and to
be wrapped in the spirit oftlE Mother of the OceaD, was also the weekend Mr.

Makua that Dr. Gbodossou and I had the opportunity to meet you, and we are
etemally grateftrl for that opportunity. But you axe the Elder ofthe Spiritual
Waniois, the first chair. In tradilional medicine and indigenous science you are a
leader ofyour people. How did that, yourjoumey, getyouto this place?

Well, I was asked to accept the position ofElder, and I was asked in 1990 to
come. By accepting this position, I had moved up a level. By moving up a level,
I stopped in actuality teaching. I advise now. I thought it woutd be easy,-I fooled
mysetf, it beca-” h””tic, it becarne unending. Everyday is another {1f of1ot”
oarients. Thev come from all over. Some come as far as Scodand. l’ve had
carholic priesls fiom New York. nuns ftom Canad4 you name them and they’ve
come. What they’re seeking is sacred places or spiiitual places that still exist for
themsqlves, because a lot of other places has beeo bulldozed over and removed’
So, hopefirlly hnding these places to rcconnect with themselves. My position in
this first chair just oicurred recently, and we’ve been foltowing this spirituat
whisper so to ipeak, and it’s all about trusting. The prophecies that were given by
the ancestors 2b0 and 300 years ago, are falling into place now, and it takes a full
arm trust to follow it, and that’s atl it is, because tlust belorgs to spirit’
I wish that we could really shaxe with our listening audience the aue feeling of
what ]ve’re trying to describe. Of how one feels when one becomes a part of
nature, when onJ communes with the spirit, when orc is able to be wEpped
withinthe wind and the sea and the sun and the ground ofthe four directions’ It’s
a jomey that all of us take collectively and individually. I trust that we arc all on
the joumey going to the same place. Dr, Gbodossou you rode on this canoe, what
does it mean to You?

, and when wQ go to

The canoe means to me the beginning of life because the way ofthe canoe is the
sea. the water. The water is the source of life, Also, the canoe is made with the
wood. In the African mind, alt ofthe regions think that we corlle ftom the tree’
When we go to the Dogon region, we know that the first human b€ing come ftom
. culture, we se€ also the
like the origin of life. When we go the Serer
the tree is the source. In the Wolof region we speak
so the

.”gion in S”negul, *e
canoe ard the sea is the symbol of life.
Sailing in those canoes was a wonderful experience, and this summer there will be
a launihing ofthe new canoe that is being made in Maui, and we invite all
listene$ to come.


in Benin region, we speak about









We’ve been talking about the importance oftraditional healing and indigenous
medicine. We’ve been talking about the increasing number of people who are





seeking their health care though these allemative means. Who and how are we
actually training traditional healers and people who are knowledgeable in
indigenous science. We are rcal excited because Dr. Apela Colorado is the
director ofthe only Ph.D. granting program in the entire world in indigenous
science. Parn can you tell us about this particular program?

The traditional knowledge program came fiom my grandfather’s dream of
remembering the pipe, and becaus€ ofthat the traditional knowledge program is
open to all people from all mces who want to rememb€r or regain their whole
mind, the ability to think in an indigeflous way. For people who arc actively
living a tribal life, we have a cohort called the Traditional Kaowledge Cohort,
For Euiopean American people, !,e have the recovery ofthe indigenous mind
the African-Americar/Aftican Cohod.
cohort. As ofthis past year, we b€gan
The idea of the traditional krowledge program is that here is a place, a sacred
space, where we can come together and do the healing and the recovery of our
indigenous ways and life. I’m not promoting a return to a distant tim€. What I’m
promoting is two-fold, one the remembrance ofthis whole mind, and two,
creating a synergistic relatioNhip with the westem mind.

I’ve had the opportunity to sit under a Bow-Bow tree in Fatick, Senegal, with
traditional healers, keeper ofthe ancient wisdom. Traditional

healers who serve the majority ofpatients in Senegal, West Africa, and these are
elderly gentlemen and womea who are leamed probably beyond space and time.
Dr. Gbodossou, how does one become a haditional healer in Africa?

To become a traditional healer in Africa, there are a 1ot of way. In our meadng.
we think that it is diffrcult to be good doctor without good pfiest. lt is also
difficult to be good pdest or pdesless without being a good doctor. To be a healer
is to be altogether good doctor and good priestess. The \ray to knowledge, to get
this knowledge, we can be healers aftera lot ofyears ofapprenticeship. We can
only be healer fiom a lot ofinitiation. Like to be able to leam thrcugh the dream,
You can also begin to have the knowledge ofhealers from your father. You can
also be traditional healers during your initiation
– that means before
you are able to cure a foolish mar! you know yourselfa foolish way. You must
be foolish to know the foolish maII and to b€ able to cure a foolish man. Also,
you can be a healer when you are able to learn about the way of life of other
human beings, To know the plants will cure
the _.
So to leam to be a aaditionalist, we oeed the tough way of
knowledge. And this way before leaming, we need also a lot of quality. That
means forget yourself and open for others.



Dr. Obodossou has told me this story of warching a bird fall ftom the nest, and
climbing the tree aad finding another bird in the nest who was not able to fly yet
because the bLd’s eyes were closed with infection. And he watched the mother




and father bird bring the same plant to the nest everyday, and within a few weeks
the bird’s whose eyes were closed with infection had been cured of the infection
and was able to fly away. And this is the plant that he says he uses now for
conjuctivitis in his medical pmatice. So there’s a lot be learned ftom all parts of
mtue. I’m sure this is true in Hawaii Hale Makua

Yes, it is tlue. There arc many plants in our culture that heal. First the healer
must be intimate with all things, and by being intimate, there are a few platts that
would be comeoted to this individual healer. And, ell he has to do is consult with
the plant and the plant would telt him what plant to go to. Ask that plant to allow
you to pick its leaves or whatever it may be so that you may do the healing. ln
my family there are a few pla s that we are connected to and, therefore, these arc
the plants that we go to. By going to these plants, they suggest other plants.

Being young and foolish in one part ofmy life, I thought that I too could learn of
plants and go pick a plant. The elders then told me there is much to be done, one
must offer sacrifice and prayers. One must know enough about the plant to know
what season it is the shoEgesL What time of the day to pick it. So there is much
to be leamed in this traditional knowtedge system, and we can obviously say that
it comes from years and years of haining and initiation. We are quickly runniog
out of time and I would like for each ofyou to give a pa.rting notice to our
listeners out there thrcughout the courtry. What would you like them to know,
the one thing that you would like them to know or think about in terms of
traditional medicine. Ard then we’ll ask Dr. Gbodossou to close with a prayer in
his native Afiican language as we close our program for the day. Dr. Colorado
what would you like our listeners to know altd to think about?


When we Wisconsin Oneida were talking with an elder several yean ago, we
were lanenting the loss of our cultue, the loss of our identity, the loss ofour
spirituality and he told us this. The power’s not lost, you are. We can rcmember
our indigenous mind, and I encourage the listeners in this audience to take steps to
regain this beautifirl way oflife.

Hale Makua:
I would leave with you of loving everything. By loving everything, you would
have to be intimate. And by being intimate, you would have to be humble.


Dr. Gbodossou, what words do you leave to oul listeners?


The time is now for me to walk together. The thing that is here in this world, we
are only in transitioD, only we’ve got a mission to do, aDd we need to forget a
little bit oursetves to help each other.


I close by saying that each ofus are on an individual and a collective j ourney to


to find the spfuit to become with God. I ask each ofus to look and

find ours€lves,
in our individual way because this relationship is possible.
to begin tbatjoum€y
Dr. Gbodossou, wlro is tom Beniu and Senegal, in the way ofancient peoplc we
ask you to close our program today with a praycr.

AlswEr: Ilale Makua, you are the first seat ofthe elder,I beg your pardon aDd I ssk your

pqmissiotr to do this prayor.

Aosw€r: Please-